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Metformin is a hypoglycemic (sugar-lowering) drug. It lowers the level of glycosylated hemoglobin and glucose in the blood (after eating), and improves glucose tolerance. This medication reduces glucose production in the liver and increases sensitivity to insulin tissues (i.e., increases the absorption of glucose and its metabolism). However, it does not affect the production of insulin pancreas. Metformin also normalizes metabolism.
Composition and form of release
The active substance of the drug is metformin, and is produced in the form of tablets (500 mg, 850 mg, and 1000 mg).
Metformin is prescribed for diabetes mellitus type II (especially in the case of concomitant obesity) following the ineffectiveness of diet therapy.
- Hypersensitivity (intolerance of components);
- Renal pathology or renal insufficiency;
- Pronounced impairment of the functional state of the liver;
- Conditions accompanied by hypoxia, including cardiac and respiratory failure, acute phase of myocardial infarction, anemia, and acute cerebrovascular insufficiency;
- Infectious diseases;
- Surgeries and injuries;
- Chronic alcoholism;
- Acute/chronic metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis;
- While observing a low-calorie diet (less than 1000 kcal/day);
- When conducting studies using radioactive isotopes of iodine;
- During pregnancy;
- During breastfeeding.
Metformin is prescribed with caution to children, seniors (over 65 years of age), and individuals performing heavy physical work (due to a risk of developing lactate acidosis).
Pregnancy and lactation
Metformin can be used during pregnancy if the expected therapeutic effect exceeds the risk to the fetus. It is necessary to cease breastfeeding for the duration of treatment.
Dosing and administration
Metformin is taken orally during or after a meal.
The initial dose is 500-850 mg two to three times a day.
After 10-15 days, the dose is adjusted according to the results of a patient’s glycemic profile.
The maximum recommended dose is 3000 mg per day, divided into three doses.
The initial dose for children older than ten years is 500-850 mg once a day, and the maximum dose is 2000 mg/day, divided into two to three doses.
- Digestive disorders: lack of appetite, nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and vomiting.
- Metabolic disorders: lactic acidosis, hypovitaminosis B12, and megaloblastic anemia.
- Neurological disorders: a taste disorder.
- Hepatobiliary disorders: liver dysfunction, hepatitis.
- Changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissue: erythema, pruritus, and urticaria.